NASEM and JASON reports
The U.S. National Academies of Sciences report entitled "An Assessment of Illness in U.S. Government Employees and Their Families at Overseas Embassies"
2020-12-05, Press release by the NASEM
"An Assessment of Illness in U.S. Government Employees and Their Families at Overseas Embassies" says that among the mechanisms the committee considered, directed, pulsed radio frequency energy appears to be the most plausible mechanism in explaining these cases, especially in individuals with the distinct early symptoms."
It is noted that Section 4 (or Chapter 6) refers to "Plausible Mechanisms" and starts by examining "DIRECTED RADIO FREQUENCY ENERGY".
This section cites among other Russian-literature review by Pakhomov and Murphy, (2000), which refers to the most important role of modulation and pulsing in determining the biological effects of low-intensity radiofrequency emissions. An excerpt from the cited publication is provided below.
Were the "Havana Syndrome" attacks affecting some individuals and not others?
Is it a case of individual-specific electromagnetic targeting? There is evidence in favor of that hypothesis.
Stanford Professor David A. Relman who chaired and led the work of the National Academies of Science 2020 report on “Havana syndrome", gave an interview at #TheExchange, a media program of the U.S. National Academies of Science on 2021-11-16.
Presenter David Grae asks: "Would it be focused on one person, based on the technology that you know is out there? I mean, I saw an image, in one of the reports or in some reporting on this, of a big machine that the Russians made, I don't know, 20, 30, 40 years ago".
He adds: "Would they attack one person at a time or it would be an entire building?"
He continues as follows: I guess it's the words "directed energy". I'm picturing like a laser. Could it possibly be something very broad that's attacking a mile-wide area?
Reference from the interview: https://youtu.be/8k1Hectj6f8
Professor David A. Relman responds: "In almost every case, there were people in adjacent rooms that didn't have the experience. In one or two cases, there were actually others in the room that either did or did not have that same experience."
It is noted that this response has been featured by #TheExchange on X.
The JASON report entitled "An Analysis of Data and Hypotheses Related to the Embassy Incidents"
Written by the JASON elite scientist group advising the U.S. government and commissioned by the U.S. Department of State
Cited by this NYT article: https://www.nytimes.com/2022/02/02/us/politics/havana-syndrome-radio-energy.html
The report does not rule out short-pulse radio frequency (RF) radiation primarily in the range of 500 MHz to 30 GHz, but considers neurological damage by electromagnetic energy unlikely in the absence of evident heating.
Damage by neuromodulation is not discussed. The possibility of an external electromagnetic signal modulating neural activity is not approached.
Electromagnetic energy below 500 MHz and above 30 GHz is ruled out by the JASON report.
(e-page 12) "Ionizing radiation, electromagnetic energy below 500 MHz and above 30 GHz, and sonic (infrasound / audible / ultrasound) energy delivered from a distance can, with high confidence, be eliminated as potential causes."
"Short-pulse radio frequency (RF) radiation primarily in the range of 500 MHz to 30 GHz cannot be ruled out conclusively as a modality for a subset of the incidents at this time. However, it is unlikely given that there is no well documented or broadly accepted mechanism to induce lasting neurological or other damage with focusable RF energy that would not produce a sensation of heating on the skin".
The report also mentions that the Frey effect "cannot produce brain damage by mechanical means at tolerable sound levels."